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Municipal Drinking Water Disinfection


Microorganisms can be found in raw water from rivers, lakes and groundwater. While not all microorganisms are harmful to human health, there are some that may cause diseases in humans. These are called pathogens. Pathogens present in water can be transmitted through a drinking water distribution system, causing waterborne disease in those who consume it.

In order to combat waterborne diseases, different disinfection methods are used to inactivate pathogens. Along with other water treatment processes such as coagulation, sedimentation, and filtration, chlorination creates water that is safe for public consumption.

Chlorination is one of many methods that can be used to disinfect water. This method was first used over a century ago, and is still used today. It is a chemical disinfection method that uses various types of chlorine or chlorine-containing substances for the oxidation and disinfection of what will be the potable water source.

Chlorine was first discovered in Sweden in 1744. At that time, people believed that odours from the water were responsible for transmitting diseases. In 1835, chlorine was used to remove odours from the water, but it wasn't until 1890 that chlorine was found to be an effective tool for disinfecting; a way to reduce the amount of disease transmitted through water. With this new find, chlorination began in Great Britain and then expanded to the United States in 1908 and Canada by 1917. Today, chlorination is the most popular method of disinfection and is used for water treatment all over the world.


A large amount of research and many studies have been conducted to ensure success in new treatment plants using chlorine as a disinfectant. A leading advantage of chlorination is that it has proven effective against bacteria and viruses; however, it cannot inactivate all microbes. Some protozoan cysts are resistant to the effects of chlorine.

In cases where protozoan cysts are not a major concern, chlorination is a good disinfection method to use because it is inexpensive yet effective in disinfecting many other possibly present contaminants. The chlorination process is also fairly easy to implement, when compared to other water treatment methods. It is an effective method in water emergency situations as it can eliminate an overload of pathogens relatively quickly. An emergency water situation can be anything from a filter breakdown to a mixing of treated and raw water.


Chlorine inactivates a microorganism by damaging its cell membrane. Once the cell membrane is weakened, the chlorine can enter the cell and disrupt cell respiration and DNA activity (two processes that are necessary for cell survival).

Gas Chlorine – Advantages

Chlorine gas is having 100 % chlorine.You can control the chlorination continuously and uniformly with chlorinator. Bleaching powder being hygroscopic in nature, absorbs moisture from air and will become a pasty mass. Hence storage & handling is a difficult task, Rapidly looses chlorine storage, Leads to commercial loss on storage.

Due to rapidly depleting chlorine concentration in bleachingpowder, exact chlorine dosage at the time of dosing is never known. Bleaching powder solution preparation is a laborious process involving mixing, settling, decanting of clear chlorine solution, transferring to dosing equipment etc. If the solution has high residue, then lime will deposit inside pipelines and equipment causing choking of lines and pumps.

While adding to water bleaching powder will be having only 25% chlorine, you have to add minimum 4Kgs of bleaching powder to get 1.0kg chlorine. Uniform chlorination will not available with bleaching Powder.

Gas Chlorine – The Safest

           Facts about Gas Chlorine

Treatment for Reatment for Municipal Water Purification and Drinking Water Disinfection

► Vacuum Regulator
► Water Inlet
► Non-return Valve
► Chlorine Inlet
► HOCL Inlet
► Chlorine Pressure Regulator
► Rota meter
► Chlorine Control Valve

Technical Specifications

Automatic Vacuum Regulator with Teflon diaphragm and Teflon/Silver working parts, which will be stopped the chlorine flow from the cylinder in case of power failure/water shortage. Water passes through the injector to produce the required vacuum, this automatic vacuum regulator will be reduced the pressure of chlorine to a constant level. The Automatic Vacuum Regulator is the heart of vacuum feed chlorinators. Our exclusive design ensures safe handling of chlorine gas with minimum risk.

Differential Pressure Regulator A compensating differential pressure regulator with Teflon diaphragm and working parts to maintain the constant down stream pressure across the Rota Meter.

Rota Meter A borosilicate glass Rota meter with scale and Teflon float to measure the flow of chlorine gas Calibrated for various capacities. Accuracy

Control Valve A flow regulating pressure valve to maintain the constant flow of required chlorine gas.

Injector An Injector to create the required vacuum at a minimum water pressure of 0.5 Kg/cm2 . Motive water flowing through the injector generates vacuum which turns open the Automatic Vacuum Regulator open and allows the flow of chlorine through the system. Chlorine gas and water will get mixed here to form chlorine solution.

H20 + CI2> HCL + HOCL

Pressure Breaker A vacuum pressure breaker to prevent the possibility of water being drawn into the chlorinator and chlorine cylinder. The system is also provided with pressure relief valve, vacuum relief valve, check valve, drain relief valve…etc. to ensure the safety of both men and machinery. All connection pipes for chlorine gas will be made out of steel braided Teflon with necessary stainless steel cylinder jack and fittings. A cabinet should made out of FRP, fitted with three numbers of pressure gauges to show the chlorine, water, vaccumpressure and with a minimum